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Was ist Anycast DNS?

Erfahren Sie, wie Sie Anycast DNS zu Ihrem Vorteil nutzen

Anycast ist eine Netzwerktechnik, die es ermöglicht, eine IP-Adresse für mehrere Server zu verwenden, da das IP-Präfix von mehreren Standorten aus betrieben wird.

Wenn ein Nutzer eine Anfrage stellt (wenn Sie auf einen Link klicken, um eine Website zu besuchen), entscheidet das Netzwerk auf der Grundlage von Routing-Protokollen und der Verfügbarkeit von Servern, wohin die Anfrage geleitet wird. 

Um es weiter zu vereinfachen: Anycast DNS bedeutet, dass jeder der verfügbaren DNS-Server auf Ihre Anfrage antworten kann.

Wie erwähnt, hängt die Antwort von den Protokollen, der Verfügbarkeit, aber auch vom Standort ab. Der Server, der Ihrem Standort am nächsten ist, antwortet auf Ihre Anfrage. Wir werden in diesem Artikel die Vorteile von Anycast DNS näher erläutern.

Warum ist Anycast DNS so besonders?

Normalerweise verbindet sich ein Server oder andere Geräte über eine IP-Adresse mit dem Internet (eine IP-Adresse ist mit einem Straßennamen und der Hausnummer vergleichbar).

Jedes Gerät und jeder Server bekommt im Allgemeinen eine eigene IP-Adresse zugewiesen. Im Internet ist diese Information wichtig, um zu wissen, auf wen diese IP-Adresse letztendlich zurückführbar ist, aber auch, um eine Verbindung mit dem Internet herstellen zu können.

Normalerweise gibt es für jedes Gerät und jeden Server nur eine IP-Adresse, also ein Verhältnis von 1:1.

Das Besondere an Anycast DNS ist, dass nicht nur ein, sondern mehrere Geräte/Server über dieselbe IP-Adresse mit dem Internet verbunden werden können. Bei Anycast DNS geht es also um 1:n, wobei „n“ für mehrere Server/Geräte steht.

Wie funktioniert Anycast DNS?

DNS, auch bekannt als „Domain Name System“, übersetzt Namen, z. B. den Namen Ihrer Website, in eine IP-Adresse, damit andere Computer/Server die Adresse lesen können.

Wenn ein DNS verschiedene Namen übersetzt, wird dies als „Resolving“ bezeichnet. Wenn Sie also von „DNS-Resolvern“ hören oder lesen, sind damit Server gemeint, die mit der „Auflösung“ von Webadressen beschäftigt sind.

Jedes Mal, wenn Sie eine Website besuchen wollen, wird eine Anfrage gesendet und diese wird an einen DNS-Resolver gesendet, der dann die IP-Adresse der Website zurückgibt.

Sie geben zum Beispiel www.one.com ein und der DNS-Resolver übersetzt es in Zahlen, damit Sie die Website besuchen können.

Was passiert, wenn ich kein Anycast DNS verwende?

Wenn Sie Anycast DNS nicht verwenden, wird der Prozess verlangsamt. Sie verwenden dann höchstwahrscheinlich Unicast-Routing. Unicast sendet die Abfrage an einen bestimmten Server, nicht an mehrere Server.

Wenn der Resolver nicht verfügbar ist oder zum Zeitpunkt der Anfrage nicht funktioniert, muss der Client, von dem die Anfrage stammt, einen anderen Weg finden, indem er Anfragen an andere DNS-Resolver sendet. Das führt zu weiteren Verzögerungen.

Warum sollten Sie Anycast DNS verwenden?

Anycast DNS hat viele Vorteile. Im Folgenden werden wir drei Gründe nennen, warum es für uns von Vorteil ist und wie Sie davon profitieren können.

  • Latenz 

Die Art und Weise, wie Anycast DNS auf Abfragen und Anfragen reagiert, verkürzt die Zeitspanne zwischen Ihrer Anfrage und der Antwort des Servers. Lange Wartezeiten können ein Problem darstellen, da Sie schnellstmöglich eine Antwort auf Ihre Anfrage erwarten. Als Nutzer wollen Sie nicht warten, bis die Website geladen ist; Sie wollen, dass sie im Browser sofort erscheint.

Anycast DNS löst buchstäblich die Wartezeit auf. Mit Anycast DNS funktioniert die DNS-Auflösung viel schneller, weil die Anfrage an mehrere DNS-Resolver und nicht nur an einen bestimmten gesendet wird. Anschließend wird der nächstgelegene, verfügbare DNS-Resolver gefunden.

  • Uptime

Anycast DNS verbessert die Uptime des DNS-Resolvers und sorgt für eine 24/7 Erreichbarkeit. Wenn Sie Anycast-DNS nicht verwenden, besteht das Risiko, dass ein Server auch mal nicht erreichbar ist.

  • Schutz

Anycast DNS bietet Ihnen Schutz vor DDoS-Angriffen. DDoS-Angriffe zielen auf DNS-Resolver ab; diese Art von Angriff wird als DNS-Flood bezeichnet. Eine Masse von Bots überwältigt den DNS-Resolver mit einer extremen Menge von DNS-Anfragen, wodurch ein Server zum Erliegen kommt. 

Anycast schützt Sie vor einem DDoS-Angriff, indem es den Datenverkehr verteilt. Anstelle eines bestimmten Servers, verwendet Anycast DNS mehrere Server, wodurch es der Bot-Armee erschwert wird, die Server zu überwältigen. 

Die Bot-Armee kann einen Server überfluten beziehungsweise überwältigen, indem sie eine unbegrenzte Anzahl von Anfragen sendet. Wenn Anycast jedoch mehrere Server verwendet, werden die Bots keinen Erfolg haben.