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Cosa sono le email di phishing?

Come individuare e bloccare le email di phishing

Hai sentito il termine email di phishing e ti sei chiesto cosa significa? In questo articolo spiegheremo cos’è un attacco di phishing, come individuare una email di phishing e come bloccare un’email di phishing.

Cosa sono le email di phishing e cosa significa phishing? Il phishing è un metodo per raccogliere informazioni personali tramite email, siti web o telefono (chiamato anche vishing). Dall’inglese, phishing è un’analogia con un pescatore che lancia un’esca nel mare per catturare un pesce. Le email di phishing sono esattamente la stessa cosa, l’autore dell’attacco invia un’email esca sperando che il destinatario abbocchi, rivelando informazioni personali.

Le email di phishing sono uno degli attacchi più comuni nel mondo cibernetico. Gli attacchi stanno diventando sempre più sofisticati, il che significa che sempre più persone rischiano di cadere in questo tipo di trappola.

Come riconoscere un’email di phishing?

Le email di phishing sono in genere facili da individuare. La prima cosa da fare è controllare il mittente. Chi ti ha inviato l’email? Clicca sull’email del mittente per visualizzare l’indirizzo email completo e determinare se è o meno sicuro.

Un’email di phishing mira a raccogliere informazioni dal destinatario, inducendolo a credere che l’email sia stata inviata da un mittente legittimo. L’hacker che invia le email di phishing vuole indurre il destinatario ad agire come indicato nell’email, per fargli condividere informazioni finanziarie personali.

Un tipico tentativo di phishing, è un’email presentata come inviata da una banca o da una persona di alto livello dell’azienda presso la quale lavora il destinatario, per esempio il CEO. L’autore dell’attacco, mascherato da persona importante e affidabile, si crea così un motivo plausibile per mettersi in contatto con te. Ecco il modo in cui iniziano le truffe di phishing.

Un esempio di email di phishing

Forse l’esempio di attacco di phishing più noto si è verificato nel 2016, quando degli hacker russi sono riusciti a convincere John Podesta, il presidente della campagna elettorale di Hillary Clinton, a rivelare la password al suo account Gmail personale.

Il modo in cui questa truffa di phishing ha funzionato è davvero interessante. Gli hacker hanno inviato un’email di phishing a John, avvertendolo che la sua password era stata compromessa, perché qualcuno ne era in possesso, e che quindi avrebbe dovuto cambiarla immediatamente. Gli hacker hanno incluso un link nell’email che lo ha portato a una falsa pagina di accesso. Il resto è storia.

Gli autori delle email di phishing stanno affinando i loro metodi e le loro tecniche. Come nell’esempio di sopra, la speranza è di riuscire a individuare una truffa di phishing, ma a volte esse riescono ad avere la meglio su di noi.

Esempi di attacchi di phishing: come riconoscere un tentativo di phishing

Quando ricevi un’email, assicurati di leggerla con attenzione prima di rispondere o aprire un link. Alcuni dei segni rivelatori sono proprio al suo interno, devi solo leggere attentamente l’email per individuarli.

  • Il tuo account è stato violato

Questa frase è un classico delle truffe di phishing. È probabile che l’hacker abbia trovato la tua email sul sito web della tua azienda e abbia deciso di approfittarne. Non stare troppo a pensare a come gli hacker abbiano ottenuto la tua email aziendale, perché ciò fa parte delle loro abilità. Concentrati piuttosto, su come riconoscere una email di phishing, analizzando il contenuto dell’email.

L’hacker, di solito, spiega nella mail come è riuscito a violare il tuo account, ma noterai delle incongruenze da cui si intuisce chiaramente che è tutta una invenzione.

In secondo luogo, quando hai a che fare con un’email di questo tipo, in cui il mittente ti sta minacciando, rifletti bene se la minaccia è reale o se si tratta solo dell’ennesima e-mail di phishing.

  • Reimpostazione della password

Un altro stratagemma utilizzato dagli hacker per le proprie truffe di phishing è l’invio di una email, in cui si avvisa che è necessario reimpostare la password del servizio ADP per ricevere la busta paga.

ADP (Automatic Data Processing) è il principale fornitore di servizi per le risorse umane. Un attacco di phishing di questo tipo, può avere successo poiché tutti noi desideriamo ricevere i nostri stipendi usufruendo del servizio ADP.

Questo è uno stratagemma per farti rivelare la tua password e altre informazioni personali, che l’hacker può utilizzare per violare l’account.

  • Richiesta di pagamento

In alcuni tipi di email di phishing ti vengono mostrate delle ricevute di pagamento dall’apparenza plausibile, che rendono difficile non fidarsi del contenuto dell’email. Un attacco di phishing con richiesta di pagamento può assomigliare a qualcosa del genere: hai dimenticato di pagare una fattura e devi pagare l’importo oggi per evitare la cancellazione del tuo account.

Per accorgersi di questo tipo di truffe di phishing via email, è necessario essere a conoscenza delle procedure per riscuotere i pagamenti utilizzate dall’azienda (da cui gli hacker affermano di provenire), così da verificare eventuali discrepanze. Nel dubbio, il consiglio è sempre di contattare telefonicamente l’azienda e chiedere informazioni sulla veridicità dell’email.

  • Donazione di beneficenza

Nel caso delle donazioni di beneficenza, gli hacker cercano di sfruttare l’avidità e l’ingenuità del destinatario. Tuttavia, come regola generale, tieni presente che se è troppo bello per essere vero, probabilmente lo è.

Il contenuto dell’email di solito riguarda una persona benestante che si sta avvicinando alla fine della sua vita e vuole regalare tutti i suoi soldi a persone diverse.

Alcuni altri elementi di cui essere consapevoli quando si riceve un’email e che dovrebbero far scattare un campanello d’allarme sono:

  1. Le aziende legittime non chiedono mai le tue informazioni personali tramite email
  2. Le aziende legittime hanno il proprio dominio di posta elettronica
  3. Le aziende legittime non commettono errori grammaticali scrivendo i contenuti
  4. Le aziende legittime non inviano un allegato via email non richiesto

La differenza tra spam e phishing?

Potresti chiederti qual è la differenza tra email spam ed email di phishing. Le email di spam vengono inviate a migliaia di persone nella speranza di indurle ad acquistare prodotti discutibili e a partecipare a schemi problematici. Schemi il cui oggetto recita: lotteria, hai vinto un’automobile, richiedi la tua auto, prestito bancario, ecc.

Scopri di più sulle email di spam in questo articolo, dove abbiamo spiegato cosa dovresti fare se ricevi un’email di spam.

Come accennato in precedenza, le email di phishing sono comunicazioni e attività fraudolente che sembrano provenire da una fonte affidabile. L’obiettivo principale delle email di phishing è estorcere informazioni personali.

C’è anche lo spear phishing, con cui gli aggressori e gli hacker mirano ad attaccare un individuo specifico, in genere un individuo di alto profilo.

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