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O que são emails de phishing?

Como detetar e parar emails de phishing

Já ouviu o termo emails de phishing e interrogou-se sobre o seu significado? Este artigo irá explicar como detetar emails de phishing, o que é um ataque de phishing, e como parar um email de phishing. 

Então o que são emails de phishing, e o que significa phishing? O phishing é um método de recolha de informação pessoal através de emails, websites, ou telefone (também chamado vishing). Phishing é uma analogia de um pescador que atira um anzol iscado ao oceano para apanhar peixe. Em relação aos emails de phishing, o atacante envia um email iscado esperando que o destinatário morda. 

Os emails de phishing são precisamente o mesmo, mas neste caso, os atacantes utilizam especificamente o email para phishing, “pescar”, de informação pessoal. 

Os emails de phishing são um dos ataques mais comuns do cibermundo. Os ataques estão a tornar-se cada vez mais sofisticados, o que significa que cada vez mais pessoas estão a cair neste tipo de emails de phishing.

Como identificar um email de phishing?  

Os emails de phishing são tipicamente fáceis de detetar. A primeira coisa que se deve fazer é verificar o remetente. Quem lhe enviou o email? Clique no email do remetente para ver o endereço de email completo e determinar se parece exato ou não. 

Um email de phishing visa recolher informações do destinatário, enganando o destinatário a acreditar que o email é enviado por um remetente legítimo. O atacante ou hacker que envia as mensagens de phishing faz com que o destinatário pense que precisa de tomar medidas como indicado na mensagem de correio electrónico e subsequentemente deixar informações financeiras pessoais. 

Uma tentativa típica de phishing seria um email apresentado como sendo enviado por um banco ou por uma pessoa de alto nível na empresa em que o destinatário está a trabalhar, tal como o CEO. O atacante disfarçado de uma pessoa importante e de confiança, que tem uma razão plausível para entrar em contacto consigo, é o início dos esquemas de phishing. 

Um exemplo de Phishing

Talvez o exemplo mais conhecido de ataque de phishing tenha ocorrido em 2016 quando os hackers russos conseguiram que o presidente de campanha de Hillary Clinton, John Podesta, desse a palavra-passe da sua conta pessoal do Gmail. 

A forma como o esquema de phishing funcionou é realmente interessante. Os hackers enviaram um email de phishing a John avisando-o de que a sua palavra-passe tinha sido comprometida, que alguém tinha a sua palavra-passe e que ele a deveria alterar imediatamente. Os hackers incluíram um link no email que o levou a uma página de login falsa. 

Os atacantes de phishing por correio electrónico estão a aperfeiçoar os seus métodos e técnicas. Como no exemplo acima, esperamos poder detetar um esquema de phishing, mas por vezes eles levam a melhor sobre nós. 

Exemplos de ataques de Phishing – detete os esquemas de phishing scam como estes

Quando recebe um email, certifique-se de que está a ler o email cuidadosamente antes de responder ou abrir uma ligação. Alguns dos sinais indicativos estão lá, basta estudar o email para os detetar. 

  • A sua conta foi hackeada

Esta frase é tipicamente utilizada em esquemas de phishing. O hacker encontrou provavelmente o seu email no site da sua empresa e decidiu tirar partido do mesmo. Poderá ficar preocupado com a forma como os hackers sabiam do seu email comercial, esta é uma jogada inteligente do hacker. No entanto, pode ainda detetar que se trata de um email de phishing ao reparar no conteúdo real do email. 

O hacker continuará normalmente a explicar como piratearam a sua conta, e verá como eles não compreendem como funciona o malware e que é tudo inventado.

Em segundo lugar, quando vir um email deste tipo em que o remetente o esteja a ameaçar, pense para si mesmo se é realmente exato ou apenas um email de phishing. 

  • Redefinir Senha

Outro estratagema que os hackers usam para implementar os seus esquemas de phishing é o envio de emails a avisar que precisa de redefinir a sua senha do seu serviço onde recebe o seu cheque de pagamento. 

Este ataque de phishing pode ser bem sucedido pois todos nós queremos receber o nosso salário. Este é um estratagema para o fazer entregar a sua senha e outras informações pessoais, que o hacker pode depois utilizar para violar uma conta. 

  • Pedido de pagamento

Alguns tipos de emails de phishing fornecem receitas de phishing, o que torna difícil não confiar no conteúdo do email. Um ataque de phishing que requer pedidos de pagamento pode ser algo do género: esqueceu-se de pagar uma fatura, e precisa de pagar a quantia hoje para evitar o cancelamento da sua conta. 

Para reparar nestes tipos de esquemas de phishing por correio electrónico, precisa de estar ciente do processo da empresa (de onde os hackers alegam ser) e procurar irregularidades. Recomendamos que contacte a empresa por telefone e pergunte sobre a exactidão do email.

  • Doação de caridade

No caso de doações de caridade, os hackers tentam tirar partido da ganância e ingenuidade do recetor. No entanto, como regra geral, tenha em mente que, se for demasiado bom para ser verdade, provavelmente é. 

O conteúdo do email é normalmente sobre uma pessoa rica que se aproxima do fim da sua vida e quer doar todo o seu dinheiro em constelações a diferentes pessoas. 

Algumas outras coisas a ter em conta ao receber um email e que deve considerar como mau sinal imediatamente:

  1. As empresas legítimas nunca pedem a sua informação pessoal por email
  2. As empresas legítimas têm o seu próprio domínio de email
  3. As empresas legítimas não têm erros gramaticais na sua ortografia
  4. As empresas legítimas não enviam um anexo não solicitado por email

As diferenças entre spam e phishing?  

Poderá questionar-se sobre a diferença entre spam e emails de phishing. Os emails de spam são enviados aos milhares na esperança de atrair pessoas para a compra de produtos questionáveis e participar em esquemas problemáticos. Esquemas com linhas temáticas tais como lotaria, ganhou um carro, reclamar o seu carro, empréstimo bancário, etc.

Leia mais sobre emails de spam neste artigo, onde explicamos o que deve fazer se receber um email de spam. 

Como mencionado acima, emails de phishing são comunicações e atividades fraudulentas que parecem vir de uma fonte fidedigna. O principal objectivo das mensagens de correio electrónico de phishing é extrair informações pessoais.

Há também o phishing “de lança”, o spear phishing significa que atacantes e hackers visam um indivíduo específico a atacar, tipicamente um indivíduo de alto perfil, famoso ou num cargo importante. 

Mantenha-se a salvo por aí!