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Mikä on selaimen sormenjälki (browser fingerprinting)?

Kerromme, mikä on selaimen sormenjälki ja miten sitä käytetään.

Selaimen sormenjälki (browser fingerprinting) on tiedonkeruumenetelmä, joka tiivistää selaimen asetukset ja muodostaa digitaalisen allekirjoituksen, tai toisin sanoen digitaalisen sormenjäljen (digital fingerprint). Tämä tarkoittaa pohjimmiltaan sitä, että nettisivut käyttävät selaimen sormenjälkimenetelmää vierailijoiden seuraamiseen netissä määrittämällä jokaiselle käyttäjälle yksilöllisen tunnisteen (tai tässä tapauksessa sormenjäljen).

Selaimen sormenjäljet sisältävät paljon tietoa. Selaimen sormenjälkien avulla nettisivut voivat linkittää käyttäytymismalleja tiettyihin käyttäjiin ymmärtääkseen käyttäjän käyttäytymistä. Lisäksi digitaalisen sormenjälkien tiedot voidaan sovittaa tiettyjen käyttäjien selainominaisuuksiin. Periaatteessa sitä voidaan pitää yksityisyyden loukkauksena.

Tarina nimen takana

Selaimen sormenjäljet otetaan samalla tavalla kuin poliisi ottaa oikeat sormenjäljet. Poliisi kerää sormenjäljen, analysoi sen ja kohdistaa tai täsmäyttää sen tietokannassaan olevalle henkilölle (joka on kenties rikollinen). Merkittävä ero tässä on se, että olet tämän skenaarion uhri etkä rikollinen.

Miten selaimen sormenjälki toimii?

Selaimen sormenjälki kerää IP-osoitteita, vaikka sitä ei tarvita käyttäytymisesi seuraamiseen. IP-osoitteiden lisäksi sormenjäljet voidaan ottaa muillakin tavoilla. Niitä ovat esimerkiksi selaushistoria, käyttämäsi lisäosat, järjestelmäfontit, evästeiden käyttö, värisyvyys, käyttäjäagentti, ikkunojesi koko tai auki olevien näyttöjen lukumäärä, jopa selaimesi ja istunnon aikavyöhyke – periaatteessa kaikki.

Lisäksi selaimen sormenjälki on erittäin tarkka, joten todennäköisyys, että sinulla on sama sormenjälki kuin jollain muulla selainta käyttävällä, on erittäin pieni.

Miten selaimen sormenjälki voidaan ottaa?

Selaimesi ottaa sormenjäljet: selaimesi jakaa tietosi verkkopalvelimen kanssa aina, kun vierailet jollakin nettisivulle. Nettisivut eivät voi kohdistaa tietoja tiettyyn henkilöön: sen sijaan ne tekevät sen antamalla sinulle sormenjälkikoodin. Koodi tunnistaa kaikki vierailijat ja yhdistää tietyn käyttäytymisen sinuun.

Kuka käyttää selainten sormenjälkiä?

Selaimen sormenjälkiä käytetään antamaan sinulle tarkka versio nettisivusta, jolla vierailet. Jos vierailet nettisivulla älypuhelimesi kautta, digitaalinen sormenjälki antaa sinulle responsiivisen nettisivun, jonka käyttäminen on helppoa.

Selaimen sormenjälkiä käytetään myös mainostarkoituksiin – nettisivut voivat kohdistaa tietyt mainokset sinulle ansaitakseen rahaa. Vierailemasi nettisivu voi esimerkiksi havaita, että näytönohjain on vanhentunut, ja lähettää sinulle kohdistettuja mainoksia uudesta näytönohjaimesta tai palvelimesta. Tämä on yksi esimerkki siitä, kuinka digitaalisia sormenjälkiä voidaan käyttää kohdennetun mainoksen muotona.

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Fingerprinting del browser: cosa significa?

Il fingerprinting del browser è un metodo di raccolta dati che esegue l’hashing delle impostazioni del browser e crea una firma digitale, un’impronta digitale. Ciò significa sostanzialmente, che i siti web utilizzano il metodo del fingerprinting del browser per tracciare i propri visitatori, assegnando a ciascun utente un identificatore univoco o, in questo caso, un’impronta digitale.

Il fingerprinting del browser contiene molti dati e consente ai siti web di collegare modelli di comportamento a utenti specifici per capire come agiscono. Inoltre, i dati di queste impronte digitali possono essere abbinati alle caratteristiche del browser di utenti specifici. Fondamentalmente, la cosa può essere vista come un’invasione della privacy.

La storia dietro il nome

Il processo di fingerprinting del browser è simile al modo in cui lavorano gli agenti di polizia durante la raccolta e l’analisi delle impronte digitali, da cui il nome. Un agente di polizia raccoglie l’impronta digitale, la analizza e la assegna o abbina a una persona (ad un ipotetico criminale) all’interno del proprio database. La differenza significativa nel caso del fingerprinting del browser è che tu sei la vittima e non il criminale. Sei solo il risultato di un massiccio data mining.

Come funziona il fingerprinting del browser?

Il fingerprinting del browser raccoglie gli indirizzi IP anche se non è necessario per tenere traccia del tuo comportamento. Esistono altri modi, oltre agli indirizzi IP, attraverso i quali è possibile rilevare le “impronte digitali” di un utente. Per esempio la cronologia di navigazione, i plug-in che utilizza, i caratteri di sistema, se ha abilitato i cookie, la profondità di colore, l’agente utente, le dimensioni delle finestre o il numero di schermate aperte, persino il fuso orario del browser e della sessione, praticamente tutto.

Inoltre, il fingerprinting del browser è estremamente accurato, quindi la probabilità che tu abbia la stessa impronta digitale di qualcun altro che utilizza uno stesso browser è molto ridotta.

Come si ottiene il fingerprinting del browser?

Ricevi le impronte digitali dal tuo browser; il tuo browser condivide i tuoi dati con un server web ogni volta che visiti un sito web. I siti web, non potendo assegnare dati a una persona specifica, gli assegnano un codice di impronte digitali. Il codice consentirà al sito di riconoscere tutti i siti che visiti e di associare a te comportamenti e preferenze specifici.

Chi utilizza il fingerprinting del browser?

Il fingerprinting del browser viene utilizzato per fornirti la versione accurata di un sito web che stai visitando. Se visiti un sito web tramite il tuo smartphone, il fingerprint digitale ti offrirà la versione responsive del sito, per un’esperienza utente migliore.

Il fingerprinting del browser viene utilizzato anche per scopi pubblicitari: i siti web possono inviarti annunci specifici a scopo di lucro. Per esempio, il sito web che stai visitando può rilevare che la tua scheda grafica è obsoleta e inviarti annunci mirati per indurti ad acquistare una nuova scheda grafica o un server. Questo è un esempio di come il fingerprinting del browser può essere utilizzato come forma (una forma molto specifica e personale) di pubblicità mirata.

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¿Qué es una huella digital o fingerprinting?

Si quieres saber qué es la huella digital en Internet y para qué se utiliza, ¡sigue leyendo!

La huella digital en Internet o fingerprinting es un método de recopilación de datos que codifica la configuración del navegador y crea una firma digital o huella digital. Básicamente, esto significa que los sitios web utilizan el método de huellas digitales para rastrear a sus visitantes en Internet, asignando a cada usuario un identificador único o, en este caso, una huella digital.

Las huellas digitales en Internet contienen una gran cantidad de datos. El fingerprinting permite a los sitios web vincular patrones de comportamiento a usuarios específicos para entender cómo se comporta ese usuario en particular. Además, los datos de una huella digital pueden coincidir con las características del navegador de usuarios específicos. En definitiva, el fingerprinting puede considerarse una invasión de la privacidad. 

La historia detrás del nombre

El proceso de toma de huellas digitales por parte de los navegadores es similar a la forma en que los agentes de policía recogen y analizan las huellas dactilares, de ahí su nombre. El agente de policía recogería la huella dactilar, la analizaría y la asignaría o cotejaría con una persona (que quizás sea un delincuente) en su base de datos. La diferencia significativa es que, en este caso, tú eres la víctima y no un criminal. Solo eres el resultado de un minado masivo de datos.  

¿Cómo funciona el fingerprinting o la toma de huellas digital en Internet?

Las huellas digitales en Internet recopilan direcciones IP, aunque estas no son necesarias para realizar un seguimiento de tu comportamiento. Hay otras formas, además de las direcciones IP, por las que se pueden tomar las huellas digitales. Por ejemplo, el historial de navegación, los complementos que utilizas, las fuentes del sistema, si has habilitado las cookies, la intensidad del color, el agente de usuario, el tamaño de tus ventanas o cuántas pantallas tienes abiertas, incluso la zona horaria de tu navegador y la sesión: prácticamente todo. 

Además, la huella digital en Internet es extremadamente precisa, por lo que la probabilidad de que tengas la misma huella digital que otra persona utilizando un mismo navegador es muy escasa.  

¿Cómo se obtienen las huellas digitales en Internet?

Tu navegador toma tu huella digital, para luego compartir tus datos con un servidor web cada vez que visitas un sitio web. Los sitios web no pueden asignar los datos a una persona concreta, sino que lo hacen otorgándole un código de huella digital. Este código permitirá al sitio web reconocer a todas las personas que lo visitan y asociarles un comportamiento y unas preferencias específicas.

¿Quién utiliza el fingerprinting?

El fingerprinting se utiliza para ofrecerte la versión exacta del sitio web que visites. Si vas a un sitio web a través de tu smartphone, la huella digital te ofrece un sitio web responsive que te resulta agradable y que puedes consultar sin problemas. 

La huella digital también se utiliza con fines publicitarios: los sitios web pueden mostrarte anuncios personalizados para ganar dinero. Por ejemplo, si el el sitio web en el que estás detecta que tu tarjeta gráfica está anticuada, puede mostrarte anuncios de una nueva tarjeta gráfica o de un servidor. Este es un ejemplo de cómo la huella digital en Internet puede utilizarse como una forma muy específica y personalizada de publicidad.

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¿Qué es un firewall o cortafuegos en informática?

¿Qué es un firewall? ¿Para qué sirve y cómo funciona un firewall? ¡Sigue leyendo!

Un firewall es un sistema diseñado para proteger tu red privada de accesos no autorizados. El firewall lo hace filtrando la información que llega desde Internet. Con la información que tiene el firewall, bloquea el acceso no autorizado y permite el acceso autorizado. Así que, básicamente, el firewall actúa como un cortafuegos, literalmente, ya que bloquea y protege tu red privada del acceso no autorizado, también conocido como la Internet pública. 

¿Para qué sirve un firewall?

Un firewall es necesario porque Internet está lleno de hackers y de tráfico malicioso que quiere acceder a tu red privada para causar daños. La principal función de un firewall es evitar que los hackers y el tráfico malicioso entren en tu red privada, protegiéndola de virus y malware

Un firewall es especialmente importante en una organización grande con muchos ordenadores. No querrás que todos tus ordenadores y servidores sean vulnerables a los hackers y accesibles a cualquier persona con acceso a Internet. 

¿Cómo funciona un firewall?

Un cortafuegos en un ordenador funciona de la misma manera que un cortafuegos en un edificio. En un edificio, el cortafuegos proporciona una barrera. En el desafortunado caso de incendio, el cortafuegos puede contener el fuego para evitar que se propague y permite que las personas puedan escapar rápidamente. 

Un firewall de red funciona de forma similar, ya que detiene las actividades maliciosas antes de que puedan extenderse al otro lado del cortafuegos o firewall y causar daños a las redes privadas. Por lo tanto, un firewall de red es esencial para mantener la seguridad de tu red. 

Un firewall suele tener una lista de control de acceso para determinar qué tipo de datos pueden acceder a la red y cuáles deben ser bloqueados. El firewall funciona filtrando los datos entrantes de la red mirando la dirección IP, el protocolo, el destino, los nombres de dominio, las palabras clave, el puerto, etc. Concede o deniega el permiso en base a estos datos. 

El administrador de la red determina y personaliza estas reglas. Por lo tanto, si eres el administrador de la red, puedes decidir los números de puerto que pueden acceder a la red y los que no. 

Tipos de firewall 

Hay varios tipos de firewall. 

Puedes tener un firewall basado en host, que es un firewall de software. Este cortafuegos o firewall puede instalarse en tu ordenador y solo protegerá el ordenador en el que se ha instalado. 

Muchos programas antivirus no solo ofrecen protección antivirus, sino que también cuentan con un firewall integrado. 

También puedes tener un firewall basado en la red. Un firewall de red es una combinación de hardware y software. El firewall se coloca entre una red privada y la Internet pública. A diferencia del firewall basado en host anterior, este cortafuegos o firewall basado en la red protege toda la red mediante la creación de una lista de reglas de gestión. Esto permite detectar cualquier actividad maliciosa antes de que llegue a los ordenadores. Las grandes organizaciones suelen utilizar firewall de red.

Muchas organizaciones utilizan ambos tipos de firewall. El firewall de red protege toda la red, y un firewall basado en host protege los ordenadores individuales para garantizar la máxima protección. Si los datos maliciosos superan el firewall de red, el firewall basado en host puede detenerlos.

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Was ist Browser-Fingerprinting?

Erfahren Sie mehr über die Funktionsweise und den Nutzen

Browser-Fingerprinting ist eine Methode der Datensammlung, bei der die Browsereinstellungen in einen Hashwert umgewandelt werden und eine digitale Signatur erstellt wird.

Websites nutzen das Browser-Fingerprinting, um Ihre Besucher über verschiedene Websites hinweg verfolgen zu können. Jedem Nutzer wird ein einzigartiger Identifizierungscode zugewiesen – der digitale Fingerabdruck.

Browser-Fingerprinting enthält viele Daten und es ermöglicht Websites bestimmte Verhaltensmuster mit Nutzern zu koppeln und dadurch Rückschlüsse über das Nutzerverhalten zu gewinnen. Die Daten des digitalen Fingerabdrucks können außerdem mit den Browsereinstellungen des Nutzers in Verbindung gebracht werden. Man könnte es also als Eingriff in die Privatsphäre betrachten.

Die Geschichte hinter dem Namen

Der Prozess des Browser-Fingerprinting funktioniert ähnlich, wie wenn Polizisten Fingerabdrücke nehmen und diese analysieren – deshalb der Name. Polizisten würden die Fingerabdrücke nehmen, diese analysieren und sie einer Person (die vielleicht kriminell ist) in ihrer Datenbank zuordnen.

Der große Unterschied ist, dass Sie beim Browser-Fingerprinting das Opfer und nicht ein Krimineller sind. Sie sind einfach nur Teil eines gigantischen Data Mining Prozesses.

Wie funktioniert Browser-Fingerprinting?

Beim Browser-Fingerprinting werden IP-Adressen gesammelt. Obwohl dies gar nicht notwendig ist, um über Ihr Nutzerverhalten auf dem Laufenden zu bleiben, es gibt nämlich noch andere Methoden.

Dazu gehören der Browserverlauf, genutzte Plugins, Systemschriften, ob Cookies aktiviert sind, Farbtiefe, User Agent, die Größe Ihres Browserfensters oder wie viele Tabs Sie offen haben und selbst die Zeitzone und Informationen zur Session. Also im Prinzip alles.

Browser-Fingerprinting sehr genau, sodass die Chancen, dass Sie denselben Fingerabdruck wie jemand anderes haben, verschwindend gering sind.

Wer nimmt den digitalen Fingerabdruck?

Der Fingerabdruck wird von Ihrem Browser erstellt, welcher die Daten jedes Mal, wenn Sie eine Website besuchen, mit dem Webserver teilt. Websites können an sich keine Daten zu einer Person zuordnen, deshalb nutzen Sie dafür den Fingerabdruck.

Dank dieses Codes erkennt die Website, welche anderen Websites sie besuchen und kann mit Ihnen ein bestimmtes Nutzerverhalten und damit einhergehende Charakteristiken in Verbindung bringen.

Wer nutzt Browser-Fingerprinting?

Browser-Fingerprinting wird genutzt, um Ihnen die richtige Version der besuchten Website anzuzeigen. Wenn Sie eine Website mit Ihrem Smartphone besuchen, sorgt der digitale Fingerabdruck dafür, dass die Website mit einem responsiven Design angezeigt wird, das gut zur Bildschirmgröße passt.

Zudem wird Browser-Fingerprinting für Werbezwecke genutzt und die Websites können so gezielt Werbung schalten. So könnte eine Website erkennen, dass Ihre Grafikkarte veraltet ist und Ihnen so Werbung für neue Grafikkarten anzeigen lassen. Dies ist nur ein Beispiel, wie der digitale Fingerabdruck als eine (sehr spezifische und persönliche) Art des Targeted Advertising genutzt werden kann.

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Hvad er digital fingerprint?

Digital fingerprint eller digitalt fingeraftryk, som det også kaldes på dansk, er en dataindsamlingsmetode, der hasheser browserindstillinger og danner en digital signatur, et digitalt fingeraftryk.

Metoden bruges til at indsamle en lang række datapunkter, der tilsammen tegner en profil af, hvem brugeren er. Dette betyder grundlæggende, at hjemmesider kan bruge browserens fingerprinting metode til at spore deres besøgende på tværs af nettet. Der sker ved at tildele hver bruger en unik identifikator, altså et digitalt fingeraftryk.

Det digitale fingeraftryk indeholder altså en masse data. Finger Printing metoden giver hjemmesider mulighed for at sammenkæde adfærdsmønstre for specifikke brugere ved at registrere brugerens online-adfærd. Således kan alle data fra et browser fingeraftryk matches til browserens karakteristika for den specifikke bruger.

Det digitale fingeraftryk bruges dels af sikkerhedshensyn til at beskytte særlig filer, som kun registrerede brugere skal have adgang til og dels, så benyttes metoden til at virksomheder, via særlige algoritmer, kan få tegnet en profil af brugerne og dermed blive i stand til at målrette annoncer mod bestemte grupper.

Ud over at spore en brugers adfærd kan det digitale fingeraftryk endelig også bruges til at blokere en brugers adgang til bestemte oplysninger eller bestemte hjemmesider på Internettet.

Bag om browser finger Printing

Processen med det digitale fingeraftryk ligner den metode, som politiet arbejder ud fra, når der indsamles og analyseres fingeraftryk – deraf navnet. En politibetjent indsamler fingeraftryk, analysere det indsamlede materiale og forsøger at matche det til en person i deres database. Det samme sker ved browser finger Printing. Der indsamles data for at tegne en profil af, hvem brugeren er.  

Hvordan fungerer det digitale fingeraftryk?

Det digitale fingeraftryk indsamler oplysninger om din færden på nettet. Det gælder browserhistorik, plugins du bruger, systemskrifttyper, hvis du har aktiveret cookies, farvevalg, brugeragent, tidszonen du befinder dig i, og om størrelsen (opløsningen) på din skærm er 1920 x 1080 er noget andet. Stort set alt om din profil registreres.

Derudover er browser fingeraftryk ekstremt nøjagtige, hvilket i realiteten gør det umuligt, at du har det samme fingeraftryk som en anden bruger.

Hvordan får du et browser fingeraftryk?

Du får et såkaldt fingeraftryk af din browser, hver gang du besøger en hjemmeside. Her vil din browser dele dine data med en webserver. Hjemmesider kan ikke umiddelbart knytte data til en bestemt person; i stedet gøres det ved at give dig en digital fingeraftrykskode. Koden vil gøre det muligt for hjemmesiden at genkende alle, som besøger sitet, og knytte specifik adfærd og præferencer til dig.

Hvem bruger browser finger Printing?

Browser finger Printing bruges bl.a. til at give dig den bedste version af de hjemmesider, som du besøger. Data om bl.a. din skærmopløsning og hvilke enheder, du benytter hjælper med til at give dig den bedste brugeroplevelse.

Hvis du f.eks. besøger en hjemmeside via din smartphone, er det digitale fingeraftryk med til at vise dig en responsiv udgave af hjemmesiden, der er tiltalende, og som du kan navigere rundt på uden besvær.

Browserfingeraftryk bruges også til reklameformål. Ved at indsnævre, hvem du er, bliver det lettere for annoncøren at bestemme, hvem annoncerne skal vises for. Et godt eksempel er, at hvis data viser, at du er Android-bruger, så vil du sandsynligvis ikke få vist annoncer for Apple-relaterede produkter.

Hjemmesider kan altså på den måde målrette specifikke annoncer mod bestemte brugere. For eksempel kan den hjemmeside, du besøger, registrere, at dit grafikkort er forældet og sende dig målrettede annoncer for køb af et nyt grafikkort. Dette er et eksempel på, hvordan det digitale fingeraftryk kan bruges til målrettet annoncering.

Et browser fingeraftryk kan godt minde om Browser Cookies, og det digitale fingeraftryk tjener da også, som beskrevet ovenfor, nogle af de samme formål. Men et browser fingeraftryk er mere statiske og følger dig ikke med rundt på siden, som en cookie gør.

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Hva er nettleserfingeravtrykk?

Vi har delt alt du trenger å vite i denne artikkelen!

Browser fingerprinting, som det heter på engelsk, er en datasamlingsmetode som hasheser nettleserinnstillinger og bygger en digital signatur – digitalt fingeravtrykk som er en slags biometrisk autentisering. Dette betyr i utgangspunktet at nettsider bruker fingerprinting metoden for å spore deres besøkende på nettet ved å gi hver bruker en unik identifikator eller, i dette tilfellet, et digitalt fingeravtrykk.

En slik biometrisk autentisering inneholder mye data. Nettleserfingeravtrykk lar nettsteder koble atferdsmønstre til spesifikke brukere for å forstå hvordan de oppfører seg. I tillegg kan dataen til digital fingerprint bli matchet med nettleserens egenskaper hos spesifikke brukere. 

Historien bak navnet

Prosessen med digital fingerprint ligner veldig på hvordan politibetjenter jobber når de samler og analyserer fingeravtrykk. En politibetjent vil samle fingeravtrykk, analysere det og tildele eller matche det med en person (som kanskje er kriminell) i deres database. Den vesentlige forskjellen her er at du er offeret i dette tilfellet og ikke en kriminell. Du er bare et resultat av massiv datautvinning. 

Hvordan fungerer fingeravtrykk?

Digital fingerprint i nettleser samler IP-adresser selv om det ikke trengs for å spore deres oppførsel. Det er andre måter, utenom IP-adresser, som du kan få fingeravtrykk gjennom. Slik som nettleser historikk, utvidelser du bruker, systemfonter, om du har aktivert cookies, fargedybde, bruker agent, størrelse på dine vinduer eller hvor mange skjermer du har åpne, til og med tidssonen til din nettleser – stort sett alt.

I tillegg er nettleserens fingeravtrykksleser ekstremt nøyaktig, så sannsynligheten for at du har samme fingeravtrykk som noen andre som bruker nettleseren, er svært liten. 

Hvordan får du digital fingerprint i nettleseren?

Du får digital fingerprint av nettleseren din; din nettleser deler dine data med en nettserver når du besøker en nettside. Nettsider kan per si ikke tilordne data til en bestemt person; de gjør i stedet det ved å gi deg en fingeravtrykkkode. Koden vil gjøre det mulig for siden å kjenne igjen alle du besøker og knytte spesifikk oppførsel og preferanser til deg.

Hvem bruker nettleserfingeravtrykk?

Nettleserfingeravtrykk brukes for å gi deg en nøyaktig versjon av en nettside du besøker. Hvis du besøker en nettside gjennom din smarttelefon, gir digital fingerprint deg en responsiv nettside som er behagelig og som du kan operere uten problemer. 

Nettleserfingeravtrykk brukes også for annonseformål – nettsteder kan målrette deg med spesifikke annonser for å tjene penger. For eksempel kan nettstedet du besøker oppdage at grafikkortet ditt er utdatert og sende deg målrettede annonser for et nytt grafikkort eller server. Dette er et eksempel på hvordan digital fingerprint kan brukes som en form (en veldig spesifikk og personlig form) for målrettet reklame.

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Vad är browser fingerprinting?

Vi har tagit reda på allt du behöver veta!

Browser fingerprinting, eller digitala fingeravtryck i webbläsaren, är en datainsamlingsmetod som “hashar” inställningarna i din webbläsare och bygger en digital signatur. Denna digitala signatur kallas för ett digitalt fingeravtryck. Det betyder i princip att webbplatser använder browser fingerprinting för att spåra sina besökare på webben. Det gör dom genom att tilldela varje användare ett unikt ID eller, i det här fallet, ett fingeravtryck.

Browser fingerprinting innehåller mycket data. Med browser fingerprinting kan webbplatser länka beteendemönster till specifika användare för att förstå hur den användaren beter sig på nätet. Dessutom kan data för digitala fingeravtryck matchas till webbläsarens egenskaper hos specifika användare. I grund och botten kan det anses vara ett integritetsintrång.

Historien bakom namnet

Processen med digitala fingeravtryck i webbläsaren liknar hur poliser arbetar när de samlar in och analyserar fingeravtryck – därav namnet. En polis skulle samla in fingeravtrycket, analysera det och tilldela eller matcha det till en person (som kanske är kriminell) i sin databas. Den avgörande skillnaden är dock att du är offret i det här scenariot och inte brottslingen. Du är resultatet av en storskalig datainsamling. 

Hur fungerar browser fingerprinting?

Vid browser fingerprinting samlar webbläsaren in IP-adresser även om det inte behövs, för att hålla reda på ditt beteende. Det finns andra sätt, förutom IP-adresser, som genererar digitala fingeravtryck. Exempelvis surfhistorik, de plugins du använder, ditt systemtypsnitt, om du har aktiverat cookies, färgdjup, användaragent, storleken på dina fönster eller hur många skärmar du har öppna, till och med webbläsarens tidszon och session – i princip allt.

Dessutom är browser fingerprinting extremt exakt, så sannolikheten att du har samma fingeravtryck som någon annan som använder en webbläsare är mycket liten.

Hur utsätts du för browser fingerprinting?

Din webbläsare skapar digitala fingeravtryck och delar din data med en webbserver när du besöker en webbplats. Webbplatser kan i och för sig inte tilldela data till en specifik person, istället gör de det genom att tilldela dig en kod. Koden kommer att göra det möjligt för webbplatsen att känna igen alla webbplatser du besöker och associera specifika beteenden och preferenser med dig.

Hur används fingerprinting?

Fingerprinting används för att ge dig den korrekta versionen av en webbplats du besöker. Om du besöker en webbplats via din smartphone ger fingerprinting dig en responsiv webbplats som är tilltalande och som du kan använda utan krångel.

Fingerprinting används också i reklamsyfte – webbplatser kan rikta sig till dig med specifika annonser för att tjäna pengar. Till exempel kan webbplatsen du besöker upptäcka att ditt grafikkort är föråldrat och skicka riktade annonser för ett nytt grafikkort eller server till dig. Detta är ett exempel på hur fingerprinting kan användas som en typ (en väldigt specifik och personlig typ) av riktad reklam.

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O que são as impressões digitais no browser?

Descubra tudo sobre a impressão digital do navegador e como se obtém a impressão digital

As impressões digitais do navegador são um método de recolha de dados que agita as definições do navegador e constrói uma assinatura digital, uma impressão digital. Isto significa basicamente que os sites utilizam o método de recolha de impressões digitais do navegador para localizar os seus visitantes através da web, atribuindo a cada utilizador um identificador único ou, neste caso, uma impressão digital. 

As impressões digitais dos navegadores contêm muitos dados. A impressão digital do navegador permite que os sites liguem padrões de comportamento a utilizadores específicos para compreender como esse utilizador se comporta. Além disso, os dados da impressão digital podem ser combinados com as características do navegador de utilizadores específicos. Basicamente, pode ser visto como uma invasão de privacidade. 

A história por detrás do nome

O processo de recolha de impressões digitais do Browser é semelhante à forma como os agentes da polícia trabalham ao recolher e analisar as impressões digitais – daí o nome. Um agente da polícia recolhe a impressão digital, analisa-a e atribui-a ou compara-a a uma pessoa (que é talvez um criminoso) na sua base de dados. A diferença significativa aqui é que é a vítima neste cenário e não um criminoso. É apenas o resultado de uma exploração massiva de dados. 

Como funciona a recolha de impressões digitais do navegador?

A recolha de impressões digitais do navegador recolhe endereços IP, mesmo que não seja necessário para acompanhar o seu comportamento. Existem outras formas, para além dos endereços IP, através das quais pode ser recolhida a sua impressão digital. Tais como histórico de navegação, plugins que utiliza, fontes do sistema, se tiver ativado cookies, profundidade de cor, agente do utilizador, o tamanho das suas janelas ou quantos ecrãs tem abertos, mesmo o fuso horário do seu navegador e sessão – basicamente tudo. 

Além disso, a impressão digital do navegador é extremamente precisa, pelo que a probabilidade de ter a mesma impressão digital que outra pessoa que utilize um navegador é muito reduzida. 

Como se obtém a impressão digital do navegador?

O seu navegador recolhe impressões digitais; o seu navegador partilha os seus dados com um servidor web sempre que visita um site. Os sites, por exemplo, não podem atribuir dados a uma pessoa específica. Em vez disso, fazem-no dando-lhe um código de impressão digital. O código permitirá ao site reconhecer todas as pessoas que visita e associar-lhe comportamentos e preferências específicas.

Quem utiliza as impressões digitais do navegador?

As impressões digitais do navegador são utilizadas para lhe dar a versão exata de um site que está a visitar. Se visitar um site através do seu smartphone, a impressão digital dá-lhe um sítio web reativo que é agradável e que pode funcionar sem qualquer incómodo. 

As impressões digitais dos navegadores são também utilizadas para fins publicitários – os sites podem visá-lo com anúncios específicos para ganhar dinheiro. Por exemplo, o site que visita pode detetar que a sua placa gráfica está desatualizada e enviar-lhe anúncios específicos para uma nova placa gráfica ou servidor. Este é um exemplo de como a impressão digital pode ser utilizada como forma (uma forma muito específica e pessoal) de publicidade direcionada.

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O que é uma firewall no computador?

Uma firewall é um sistema concebido para proteger a sua rede privada contra o acesso não autorizado. A firewall fá-lo através da filtragem da informação que chega da Internet. Com a informação que a firewall tem disponível, bloqueia o acesso não autorizado e permite o acesso autorizado. Assim, basicamente, a firewall é como uma firewall literalmente, bloqueia e protege a sua rede privada contra o acesso não autorizado, também conhecida como Internet pública. 

Porque é que preciso de uma firewall?

Uma firewall é necessária porque a Internet está cheia de hackers e tráfego malicioso que quer ter acesso à sua rede privada para causar danos. A principal função de uma firewall é impedir que hackers e tráfego malicioso entrem na sua rede privada, protegendo a sua rede privada de vírus e malware. 

Uma firewall é especialmente importante numa grande organização com muitos computadores. Não quer que todos os seus computadores e servidores sejam vulneráveis a hackers e acessíveis a todos na Internet. 

Como funciona uma firewall?

Uma firewall num computador funciona da mesma forma que uma firewall funciona numa estrutura de um edifício. Numa estrutura de edifício, a firewall fornece uma barreira. No infeliz caso de um incêndio, a firewall pode conter o fogo para evitar que o fogo se propague e permite que as pessoas escapem rapidamente. 

Uma firewall de rede funciona de forma semelhante, na medida em que interrompe atividades prejudiciais antes que estas se possam espalhar para o outro lado da firewall e causar danos às redes privadas. Por conseguinte, uma firewall de rede é essencial para manter a sua rede segura. 

Uma firewall tem normalmente uma lista de controlo de acesso para determinar que tipo de dados pode aceder à rede e que tipo de dados devem ser bloqueados. A firewall funciona através da filtragem dos dados de entrada da rede, analisando o endereço IP, Protocolo, Destino, Nomes de domínio, Palavras-chave, Porta, etc. Com base nisto, ou permite ou nega a permissão. 

O administrador da rede determina e personaliza estas regras. Assim, como administrador de rede, pode decidir quais os números de portas que podem e quais não podem aceder à rede. 

Diferentes firewalls de rede

Existem diferentes firewalls de rede. 

Pode ter uma firewall baseada em host que é uma firewall de software. Esta firewall pode ser instalada no seu computador e apenas protegerá o computador em que foi instalada. 

Muitos programas antivírus irão fornecer-lhe não só proteção contra vírus, mas também uma firewall integrada. 

Pode também ter uma firewall baseada na rede. Uma firewall baseada na rede é uma combinação de hardware e software. A firewall é colocada entre uma rede privada e a Internet pública. Ao contrário da firewall baseada no host referida acima, esta firewall baseada na rede protegerá toda a rede através da definição de uma lista de regras de gestão. Assim, qualquer atividade prejudicial pode ser detetada e interrompida antes de chegar aos computadores. As grandes organizações utilizam tipicamente firewalls baseados em rede.

Muitas organizações utilizam ambos os tipos de firewalls. A firewall baseada na rede protege toda a rede, e uma firewall baseada no host protege os computadores individuais, assegurando a máxima proteção. Se dados prejudiciais passarem a firewall baseada na rede, a firewall baseada no anfitrião ainda pode detê-los.